Complications that body dysmorphic disorder may cause or be associated with include:
- Unnecessary medical procedures, especially cosmetic surgery
- Social phobia and social isolation
- Lack of close relationships
- Difficulty attending work or school
- Low self-esteem
- Repeated hospitalizations
- Depression or other mood disorders
- Suicidal thoughts or behavior
- Anxiety disorders
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder
- Eating disorders
- Substance abuse
While it may seem that a procedure to fix your perceived flaw is a good option, skin (dermatologic) procedures, cosmetic surgery, dentistry or other approaches usually don't relieve the stress and shame of body dysmorphic disorder. You may not perceive the results you hoped for, or you may simply begin obsessing about another aspect of your appearance and seek out more procedures.
May. 09, 2013
- Body dysmorphic disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association: 2000. http://www.psychiatryonline.com. Accessed March 29, 2013.
- Body dysmorphic disorder. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec15/ch204/ch204b.html#sec15-ch204-ch204b-767. Accessed March 29, 2013.
- Prazeres AM, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: A review of its efficacy. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment. 2013;9:307.
- Fiora P, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 2009;5:477.
- Conrado LA, et al. Body dysmorphic disorder among dermatologic patients: Prevalence and clinical features. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2010;63:235.
- Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Anxiety and Depression Association of America. http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/related-illnesses/other-related-conditions/body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd. Accessed March 29, 2013.
- Wilhelm S, et al. Modular cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder. Behavior Therapy. 2011;42:624.
- Fisher JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 18, 2013.
- Hall-Flavin DK (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 29, 2013.
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