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Oct. 27, 2016
References
  1. McAninch JW, et al. Urinary stone disease. In: Smith & Tanagho's General Urology. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2013. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  2. Urinary calculi. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/urinary_calculi/urinary_calculi.html. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  3. What are kidney stones? American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/kidney-stones. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  4. Tintinalli JE, et al. Urologic stone disease. In: Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  5. Wein AJ, et al., eds. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Campbell-Walsh Urology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  6. Kidney and ureteral stones: Surgical management. American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=32. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  7. Curhan GC, et al. Diagnosis and acute management of suspected nephrolithiasis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  8. Rakel D. Urolithiasis. In: Integrative Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  9. What are the signs of kidney stones? American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/kidney-stones/symptoms. Accessed June 21, 2016.
  10. Humphreys MR (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Ariz. June 30, 2016.
  11. Stones in the urinary tract. Merck Manual Consumer Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/kidney-and-urinary-tract-disorders/stones-in-the-urinary-tract/stones-in-the-urinary-tract. Accessed June 21, 2016.