Find out what causes different types of abdominal pain.
A CT scan is an imaging test that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of the inside of your body.
During cystoscopy, your doctor uses a special tool to look inside your bladder for abnormalities.
Frequent urination, the need to urinate more often than usual, can indicate several disorders of the urinary tract.
An intravenous pyelogram is an imaging exam that may be used to help diagnose urinary tract disorders.
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
Urinalysis can be used to assess your overall health, detect a wide range of disorders, or monitor a medical condition or treatment.
Changes in urine color can be alarming, but they're often harmless — the result of certain foods, supplements or medications.
X-rays are a form of radiation that can make images of your bones and internal organs.
Aug. 14, 2013
- Tanagho EA, et al. Smith's General Urology. 17th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2008. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=21. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Urinary calculi. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary_disorders/urinary_calculi/urinary_calculi.html. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.mdconsult.com/books/about.do?about=true&eid=4-u1.0-B978-0-323-05472-0..X0001-1--TOP&isbn=978-0-323-05472-0&uniqId=230100505-57. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Tintinalli JE, et al. Tintinalli's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=40. Accessed June 17, 2013.
- Wein AJ, et al. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-6/0/1445/0.html. Accessed June 18, 2013.
- Kidney and ureteral stones: Surgical management. American Urological Association. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=32. Accessed June 18, 2013.
- Curhan GC, et al. Diagnosis and acute management of suspected nephrolithiasis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed June 18, 2013.
- Rakel D. Integrative Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.mdconsult.com/das/book/body/208746819-2/0/1494/0.html. Accessed June 19, 2013.
- Castle EP (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale/Phoenix, Ariz. July 12, 2013.
You Are ... The Campaign for Mayo Clinic
Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Make a difference today.