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Tests and diagnosis
MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the organs and tissues within your body.
Treatments and drugs
June 30, 2015
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- Bladder cancer treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/bladder/healthprofessional. Accessed May 4, 2015.
- Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Bladder cancer. In: Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 4, 2015.
- Bladder and other urothelial cancers screening (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/bladder/healthprofessional. Accessed May 4, 2015.
- Bladder cancer. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed May 4, 2015.
- Guideline for the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (stages Ta, T1 and Tis): 2007 update. Linthicum, Md.: American Urological Association. http://www.auanet.org/content/guidelines-and-quality-care/clinical-guidelines.cfm?sub=bc. Accessed May 4, 2015.
- Wein AJ, et al., eds. Urothelial cancer. In: Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 4, 2015.
- FDA drug safety communication: Update to ongoing safety review of Actos (pioglitazone) and increased risk of bladder cancer. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm259150.htm. Accessed May 5, 2015.
- Knoedler J, et al. Organ-sparing surgery in urology: Partial cystectomy. Current Opinion Urology. 2015;25:111.
- Smith ND, et al. The RAZOR (randomized open vs. robotic cystectomy) trial: Study design and trial update. British Journal of Urology International. 2015;115:198.
- Cook AJ. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Dec. 17, 2014.
- Castle EP (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz. June 11, 2015.