By Mayo Clinic Staff
In Barrett's esophagus, tissue in the tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus) is replaced by tissue similar to the intestinal lining.
Barrett's esophagus is most often diagnosed in people who have long-term gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) — a chronic regurgitation of acid from the stomach into the lower esophagus. Only a small percentage of people with GERD will develop Barrett's esophagus.
Barrett's esophagus is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Although the risk is small, it's important to have regular checkups for precancerous cells. If precancerous cells are discovered, they can be treated to prevent esophageal cancer.
The tissue changes that characterize Barrett's esophagus cause no symptoms. The signs and symptoms that you experience are generally due to GERD and may include:
- Frequent heartburn
- Difficulty swallowing food
- Less commonly, chest pain
Many people with Barrett's esophagus have no signs or symptoms.
When to see a doctor
If you've had trouble with heartburn and acid reflux for more than five years, ask your doctor about your risk of Barrett's esophagus.
Seek immediate help if you:
- Have chest pain, which may be a symptom of a heart attack
- Have difficulty swallowing
- Are vomiting red blood or blood that looks like coffee grounds
- Are passing black, tarry or bloody stools
The exact cause of Barrett's esophagus isn't known. Most people with Barrett's esophagus have long-standing GERD. In GERD, stomach contents wash back into the esophagus, damaging esophagus tissue. As the esophagus tries to heal itself, the cells can change to the type of cells found in Barrett's esophagus.
However, some people diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus have never experienced heartburn or acid reflux. It's not clear what causes Barrett's esophagus in these people.
Factors that increase your risk of Barrett's esophagus include:
- Chronic heartburn and acid reflux. Having GERD for more than five years or having GERD that requires regular medication and being older than age 50 can increase the risk of Barrett's esophagus. Your risk may be further increased if you are age 30 or younger when chronic GERD develops.
- Age. Barrett's esophagus can occur at any age but is more common in older adults.
- Being a man. Men are more likely to develop Barrett's esophagus.
- Being white. White people have a greater risk of the disease than do people of other races.
- Being overweight. Body fat around your abdomen further increases your risk.
People with Barrett's esophagus have an increased risk of esophageal cancer. The risk is small, especially in people whose lab tests show no precancerous changes (dysplasia) in their esophagus cells. Most people with Barrett's esophagus will never develop esophageal cancer.
Barrett's esophagus is most often diagnosed in people with GERD who are being examined for GERD complications. If your doctor discovers Barrett's esophagus on an endoscopy exam, you may be referred to a doctor who treats digestive diseases (gastroenterologist).
What you can do
- Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions, such as not eating solid food on the day before your appointment.
- Write down your symptoms, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason why you scheduled the appointment.
- Make a list of all your medications, vitamins and supplements.
- Write down your key medical information, including other conditions.
- Ask a relative or friend to accompany you to help you remember what the doctor says.
- Write down questions to ask your doctor.
Questions to ask your doctor
- Do my lab reports show abnormal tissue (dysplasia)? If so, what is the grade of my dysplasia?
- How much of my esophagus is affected?
- How often should I be screened for changes to my esophagus?
- What is my risk of esophageal cancer?
- What are the treatment options?
- Do I need to make diet or other lifestyle changes?
- I have other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?
In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions during your appointment.
What to expect from your doctor
Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may make time to go over points you want to spend more time on. You may be asked:
- When did you first begin experiencing symptoms? How severe are they?
- Are your symptoms continuous or occasional?
- What, if anything, seems to improve or worsen your symptoms?
- Do you experience acid reflux symptoms?
- Do you take any medications for reflux or indigestion?
- Do you have difficulty swallowing?
- Have you lost weight?
Endoscopy is generally used to determine if you have Barrett's esophagus.
A lighted tube with a camera at the end (endoscope) is passed down your throat to check for signs of changing esophagus tissue. Normal esophagus tissue appears pale and glossy. In Barrett's esophagus, the tissue appears red and velvety.
Your doctor is likely to remove a small tissue sample (biopsy). The biopsy can be examined to determine the degree of tissue change.
Determining the degree of tissue change
A doctor who specializes in examining tissue in a laboratory (pathologist) determines the degree of dysplasia in your esophagus cells. Your tissue may be classified as:
- No dysplasia, if Barrett's esophagus is present but no precancerous changes are found in the cells.
- Low-grade dysplasia, if cells show small signs of precancerous changes.
- High-grade dysplasia, if cells show many changes. High-grade dysplasia is thought to be the final step before cells change into esophageal cancer.
Treatment for Barrett's esophagus depends on the degree of dysplasia found in your esophagus cells and your overall health.
No dysplasia or low-grade dysplasia
Your doctor will likely recommend:
- Periodic endoscopy to monitor the cells in your esophagus. If your biopsies show no dysplasia, you'll probably have a follow-up endoscopy in one year and then every three years if no changes occur. If low-grade dysplasia is found, your doctor may recommend another endoscopy in six months or a year.
- Treatment for GERD. Medication and lifestyle changes can ease your signs and symptoms. Surgery to tighten the sphincter that controls the flow of stomach acid may be an option. Treating GERD doesn't treat the underlying Barrett's esophagus but can help make it easier to detect dysplasia.
High-grade dysplasia is thought to be a precursor to esophageal cancer. For this reason, your doctor may recommend:
- Endoscopic resection, which uses an endoscope to remove damaged cells.
- Radiofrequency ablation, which uses heat to remove abnormal esophagus tissue. Radiofrequency ablation may be recommended after endoscopic resection.
- Cryotherapy, which uses an endoscope to apply a cold liquid or gas to abnormal cells in the esophagus. The cells are allowed to warm up and then frozen again. The cycle of freezing and thawing damages the abnormal cells.
- Photodynamic therapy, which destroys abnormal cells by making them sensitive to light.
- Surgery in which the damaged part of your esophagus is removed and the remaining portion is attached to your stomach.
If you have treatment other than surgery to remove your esophagus, your doctor is likely to recommend medication to reduce acid and help your esophagus heal.
Lifestyle changes can ease symptoms of GERD, which may underlie Barrett's esophagus. Consider:
- Maintaining a healthy weight.
- Avoiding tightfitting clothes, which can put pressure on your abdomen and aggravate reflux.
- Eliminating foods and drinks that trigger your heartburn.
- Stopping smoking.
- Avoiding stooping or bending, especially soon after eating.
- Avoiding lying down after eating. Wait at least three hours after eating to lie down or go to bed.
- Raising the head of your bed. Place wooden blocks under your bed to elevate your head. Aim for an elevation of 6 to 8 inches. Raising your head by using only pillows isn't a good alternative.
If you've been diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus, you may worry about your risk of esophageal cancer. The risk of developing cancer is very small. If you experience anxiety, consider:
- Activities that help you relax, such as exercise or listening to music
- Healthy lifestyle choices, to ease any GERD symptoms and improve your overall health
- Experience. Every year, Mayo Clinic specialists treat more than 3,000 people with Barrett's esophagus.
- Latest technology. Mayo Clinic specialists use advanced imaging to detect dysplasia in the earliest, most treatable stages.
- Minimally invasive treatments. Mayo Clinic offers an array of nonsurgical treatment options for Barrett's esophagus. For many people, these minimally invasive treatments can eliminate disease without the need for surgery. If you need surgery, Mayo specialists use a minimally invasive approach.
- New ideas. Mayo Clinic researchers are studying ways to improve diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus.
Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., ranks No. 1 for digestive disorders in the U.S. News & World Report Best Hospitals rankings. Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Ariz., and Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., are ranked among the Best Hospitals for digestive disorders by U.S. News & World Report. Mayo Clinic also ranks among the Best Children's Hospitals for digestive disorders.
At Mayo Clinic, specialists in the Esophageal Clinic recommend screening for Barrett's esophagus if you are:
- Age 50 or older and have experienced GERD symptoms at least weekly for at least five years
- Age 50 or older, have been treated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy for GERD and have never been screened for Barrett's esophagus
Mayo specialists use advanced imaging technology, which studies have shown can detect dysplasia more accurately than can standard endoscopy.
Mayo Clinic specialists have experience in a range of nonsurgical treatments for Barrett's esophagus. If you need surgery, Mayo specialists generally use a minimally invasive approach.
Mayo specialists are also studying the use of genetic information to determine which treatments are likely to offer the best results for people with Barrett's esophagus.
Mayo Clinic works with hundreds of insurance companies and is an in-network provider for millions of people. In most cases, Mayo Clinic doesn't require a physician referral. Some insurers require referrals or may have additional requirements for certain medical care. All appointments are prioritized on the basis of medical need.
Specialists in gastroenterology and hepatology and colon and rectal surgery at Mayo Clinic in Arizona diagnose and treat adults with Barrett's esophagus.
For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 800-446-2279 (toll-free) 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Mountain Standard Time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.
- U.S. Patients
- International Patients
Specialists in gastroenterology and hepatology and colon and rectal surgery at Mayo Clinic in Florida diagnose and treat adults with Barrett's esophagus.
For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 904-953-0853 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.
- U.S. Patients
- International Patients
Specialists in gastroenterology and hepatology and colon and rectal surgery at Mayo Clinic in Minnesota diagnose and treat adults with Barrett's esophagus.
For appointments or more information, call the Central Appointment Office at 507-538-3270 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. Central time, Monday through Friday or complete an online appointment request form.
- U.S. Patients
- International Patients
See information on patient services at the three Mayo Clinic locations, including transportation options and lodging.
Mayo Clinic researchers are working to improve diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus. Specific efforts involve novel imaging techniques to detect early cancer changes in Barrett's esophagus, advanced endoscopy to treat Barrett's esophagus and early cancers, medications that can decrease cancer risk, and genetic factors that may be related to Barrett's esophagus.
The Mayo Clinic Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett's Esophagus Registry compiles information from people receiving care at Mayo. Researchers hope this information can help them gain a greater understanding of the genetic basis of Barrett's esophagus and develop a genetic blood test that can easily screen for the disease.
Read more about research in the Barrett's Esophagus Laboratory and Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Cancer Laboratory.
See a list of publications by Mayo Clinic doctors on Barrett's esophagus on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine.
- Mark S. Allen, M.D.
- Navtej S. Buttar, M.D.
- Stephen D. Cassivi, M.D.
- Francis C. Nichols III, M.D.
- Victor F. Trastek, M.D.
- Michael B. Wallace, M.D.
- Kenneth K. Wang, M.D.
- Dennis Wigle, M.D., Ph.D.
- Herbert C. Wolfsen, M.D.
- Louis M. Wong Kee Song, M.D.
Aug. 07, 2014
- Spechler SJ, et al. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.
- Feldman M, et al. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2010. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.
- Spechler SJ, et al. Management of Barrett's esophagus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.
- Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2014: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.
- AskMayoExpert. Who should be screened for Barrett esophagus? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
- Estores D, et al. Barrett Esophagus: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Current Problems in Surgery. 2013;50:192.
- Nelsen EM, et al. Diagnosis and management of Barrett's esophagus. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2012;92:1135.
- Gorospe EC, et al. Risk stratification and surveillance in Barrett's esophagus. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. In press. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.
- Spechler SJ, et al. Pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus and its malignant transformation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.
- Qumseya BJ, et al. Advanced imaging technologies increase detection of dysplasia and neoplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2013;11:1562.
- Bergman JJ, et al. Radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's esophagus. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 25, 2014.
- Tomizawa Y, et al. Assessment of the diagnostic performance and interobserver variability of endocytoscopy in Barrett's esophagus: A pilot ex-vivo study. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2013;19:8652.
- Ek WE, et al. Germline genetic contributions to risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, and gastroesophageal reflux. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2013;105:1711.
- Barrett's Esophagus. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/barretts/index.aspx. Accessed Jan. 28, 2014.