Find out how acupuncture works, who should avoid it and what conditions it can treat.
Diabetes can damage nerves throughout your body — a condition known as diabetic neuropathy. Nerve damage can cause pain, disability and other serious complications.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) can be the result of physical or psychological causes or both. Discover what causes ED and what treatments are available.
Vaginal dryness is a common and uncomfortable condition — but there are effective ways to treat it.
Tests and diagnosis
A tilt table test is used to investigate the cause of fainting (syncope).
Ultrasound imaging uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of structures in your body.
Jul. 12, 2012
- Gardner DG, et al. Greenspan's Basic & Clinical Endocrinology. 9th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=8407307. Accessed May 21, 2012.
- Freeman R. Autonomic peripheral neuropathy. The Lancet. 2005;365:1259.
- Stevens MJ. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. http://www.uptodate.com/index. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Boulton AJM, et al. Diabetic neuropathies: A statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2005;28:956.
- Longo DL, et al. Harrison's Online. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://www.accessmedicine.com/content.aspx?aID=9146961. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Diabetic neuropathies: The nerve damage of diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/neuropathies/. Accessed May 21, 2012.
- Overview of the autonomic nervous system. The Merck Manuals: The Merck Manual for Healthcare Professionals. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/print/neurologic_disorders/autonomic_nervous_system/overview_of_the_autonomic_nervous_system.html. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Philips JC, et al. Squatting, a posture test for studying cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2011;37:489.
- Bethanechol (prescribing information). Pomona, N.Y.: Barr Laboratories, Inc.; 2007. http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/lookup.cfm?setid=80ee6156-18b8-45aa-9402-b40647173da8. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Detrol (prescribing information). New York, N.Y.: Pharmacia and Upjohn; 2012. http://labeling.pfizer.com/ShowLabeling.aspx?id=719. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Ditropan (prescribing information). Raritan, N.J.: Ortho McNeil Pharmaceuticals; 2011. http://www.janssenpharmaceuticalsinc.com/assets/ditropanxl.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Vinik AI, et al. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Circulation. 2007;115:387.
- Robinul and Robinul Forte (prescribing information). Atlanta, Ga.: Shionogi Pharma, Inc.; 2010. http://www.robinul.com/Robinul%20PI.pdf. Accessed May 25, 2012.
- Shakher J, et al. Update on the management of diabetic polyneuropathies. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 2011;4:289.
- Wang CP, et al. A single-blinded, randomized pilot study evaluating effects of electroacupuncture in diabetic patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroparesis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008;7:833.
- Sandroni P (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 29, 2012.