Expert answers

Risk factors

Treatments and drugs

July 15, 2017
References
  1. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  2. Uno Y, et al. Early exposure to the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines and risk of autism spectrum disorder. Vaccine. 2015;33:2511.
  3. Taylor LE, et al. Vaccines are not associated with autism: An evidence-based meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies. Vaccine. 2014;32:3623.
  4. Weissman L, et al. Autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents: Overview of management. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  5. Autism spectrum disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  6. Weissman L, et al. Autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents: Complementary and alternative therapies. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  7. Augustyn M. Autism spectrum disorder: Terminology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  8. Bridgemohan C. Autism spectrum disorder: Surveillance and screening in primary care. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  9. Levy SE, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2015;24:117.
  10. Brondino N, et al. Complementary and alternative therapies for autism spectrum disorder. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/258589. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  11. Volkmar F, et al. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2014;53:237.
  12. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/autism/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  13. American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement: Sensory integration therapies for children with developmental and behavioral disorders. Pediatrics. 2012;129:1186.
  14. James S, et al. Chelation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD010766.pub2/abstract;jsessionid=9467860F2028507DFC5B69615F622F78.f04t02. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  15. Van Schalkwyk GI, et al. Autism spectrum disorders: Challenges and opportunities for transition to adulthood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2017;26:329.
  16. Autism. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed April 4, 2017.
  17. Autism: Beware of potentially dangerous therapies and products. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm394757.htm?source=govdelivery&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery. Accessed May 19, 2017.
  18. Drutz JE. Autism spectrum disorder and chronic disease: No evidence for vaccines or thimerosal as a contributing factor. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 19, 2017.
  19. Weissman L, et al. Autism spectrum disorder in children and adolescents: Behavioral and educational interventions. https://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 19, 2017.
  20. Huebner AR (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 7, 2017.

Autism spectrum disorder