Factors that increase the risk of atelectasis include:
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- Age — being younger than 3 or older than 60 years of age.
- Any condition that interferes with spontaneous coughing, yawning and sighing.
- Confinement to bed with infrequent changes of position.
- Impaired swallowing function, particularly in older adults — aspirating secretions into the lungs is a major source of infections.
- Lung disease, such as asthma in children, COPD, bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis.
- Premature birth.
- Recent abdominal or chest surgery.
- Recent general anesthesia.
- Respiratory muscle weakness, due to muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury or another neuromuscular condition.
- Any cause of shallow breathing — including medications and their side effects, or mechanical limitations, such as abdominal pain or rib fracture, for example.
- Duggana M, et al. Atelectasis in the perioperative patient. Current Opinions in Anaesthesiology. 2007;20:37.
- Conde MV, et al. Overview of the management of postoperative pulmonary complications. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 3, 2015.
- Goldman L, et al. Bronchiectasis, atelectasis, cysts, and localized lung disorders. In: Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 3, 2015.
- Smetana GW, et al. Strategies to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 3, 2015.
- AskMayoExpert. Perioperative medicine-pulmonary management. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014.
- What is atelectasis? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atl#. Accessed April 3, 2015.
- Stark P, et al. Atelectasis: Types and pathogenesis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 3, 2015.
- Finder JD. Atelectasis in children. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 3, 2015.
- Questions are the answer: Do you know the right questions to ask? Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. www.ahrq.gov/questionsaretheanswer. Accessed May 28, 2015.
- Ferri FF. Atelectasis. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 28, 2015.
- Bronchiectasis and atelectasis. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pulmonary-disorders/bronchiectasis-and-atelectasis/atelectasis. Accessed May 29, 2015.