In-depth

Complications

Flu shots and heart disease

Symptoms

Fatigue

Heart murmurs

Heart palpitations

Heart palpitations are skipped, fluttering or racing heartbeats that aren't usually a symptom of a serious heart problem. Discover the causes and symptoms of this condition.

Shortness of breath

Tests and diagnosis

Cardiac catheterization

Chest X-rays

Echocardiogram

Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Treatments and drugs

Aortic valve repair and aortic valve replacement

Heart valve surgery

Minimally invasive heart surgery

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)

Aug. 17, 2017
References
  1. Problem: Aortic valve stenosis. American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/HeartValveProblemsandDisease/Problem-Aortic-Valve-Stenosis_UCM_450437_Article.jsp#.WCn02cnFjVY. Accessed March 8, 2017.
  2. What is heart valve disease? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hvd. Accessed March 7, 2017.
  3. Bonow RO, et al., eds. Valvular heart disease. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 8, 2017.
  4. Otto CM. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of aortic stenosis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  5. AskMayoExpert. Aortic valve stenosis (adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2016.
  6. Otto CM. Medical management of asymptomatic aortic stenosis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 8, 2017.
  7. Otto CM, et al. Medical management of symptomatic aortic stenosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  8. Gaasch WH. Indications for valve placement in aortic stenosis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 22, 2017.
  9. Nishimura RA, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2014;148:e1.
  10. Ruiz CE, et al. Transcatheter therapies for the treatment of valvular and paravalvular regurgitation in acquired and congenital valvular heart disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;66:169.
  11. How can I make my lifestyle healthier? American Heart Association. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/ToolsForYourHeartHealth/Answers-by-Heart-Fact-Sheets-Lifestyle-and-Risk-Reduction_UCM_300611_Article.jsp#.WC9socnFjVY. Accessed March 10, 2017.
  12. Daniels BK. Echo Information Management System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 18, 2016.
  13. Clavel MA, et al. The complex nature of discordant severe calcified aortic valve disease grading: New insights from combined Doppler echocardiographic and computed tomographic study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2013;62:2329.
  14. Riggin EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 14, 2017.
  15. Mankad R (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 27, 2017.

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