Anal cancer rarely spreads (metastasizes) to distant parts of the body. Only a small percentage of tumors are found to have spread, but those that do are especially difficult to treat. Anal cancer that metastasizes most commonly spreads to the liver and the lungs.
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- Deng GE, et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for integrative oncology: Complementary therapies and botanicals. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2009;7:85.
- Anal carcinoma. Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Accessed May 23, 2013.
- Anal cancer treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/anal/patient. Accessed May 23, 2013.
- Gardasil (prescribing information). Whitehouse Station, N.J.: Merck & Co. Inc.; 2013. http://www.gardasil.com. Accessed May 23, 2013.
- Cervarix (prescribing information). Research Triangle Park, N.C.: GlaxoSmithKline; 2012. http://us.gsk.com/html/medicines/index.html#vaccines. Accessed May 23, 2013.
- Taking time: Support for people with cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://cancer.gov/cancertopics/takingtime. Accessed May 28, 2013.
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