Hypospadias is a condition in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip.
Tests and diagnosis
Genetic testing is used to detect altered genes that may cause illness or disease. Although genetic testing can offer important health information, it has limitations.
March 06, 2015
- Ambiguous (uncertain) genitalia. Urology Care Foundation. http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=90. Accessed Feb. 5, 2015.
- Houk CP, et al. Management of the infant with ambiguous genitalia. www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 5, 2015.
- Arboleda VA, et al. DSDs: Genetics, underlying pathologies and psychosexual differentiation. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 2014;10:603.
- Romao RLP, et al. Update on the management of disorders of sex development. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 2012;59:853.
- Rothkopf AC, et al. Understanding disorders of sexual development. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2014;29:e23.
- Wick MJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 12, 2015.
- Hoecker JL (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 25, 2015.