Current Alzheimer's medications can help for a time with memory symptoms and other cognitive changes. Two types of drugs are currently used to treat cognitive symptoms:
Cholinesterase inhibitors. These drugs work by boosting levels of a cell-to-cell communication by providing a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) that is depleted in the brain by Alzheimer's disease. The improvement is modest. Cholinesterase inhibitors can improve neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as agitation or depression, as well.
Commonly prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne) and rivastigmine (Exelon). The main side effects of these drugs include diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite and sleep disturbances. In people with cardiac conduction disorders, serious side effects may include a slow heart rate and heart block.
- Memantine (Namenda). This drug works in another brain cell communication network and slows the progression of symptoms with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It's sometimes used in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor. Side effects may include constipation, dizziness and headache.
Sometimes other medications such as antidepressants are used to help control the behavioral symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease. But some medications should only be used with great caution. For example, some common sleep medications — zolpidem (Ambien), eszopiclone (Lunesta) and others — may increase confusion and the risk of falls.
Anti-anxiety medications — clonazepam (Klonopin) and lorazepam (Ativan) — increase the risk of falls, confusion and dizziness. Always check with your doctor before taking any new medications.
Creating a safe and supportive environment
Adapting the living situation to the needs of a person with Alzheimer's is an important part of any treatment plan. For someone with Alzheimer's, establishing and strengthening routine habits and minimizing memory-demanding tasks can make life much easier.
You can take these steps to support a person's sense of well-being and continued ability to function:
- Always keep keys, wallets, mobile phones and other valuables in the same place at home, so they don't become lost.
- See if your doctor can simplify your medication regimen to once-daily dosing, and arrange for your finances to be on automatic payment and automatic deposit.
- Develop the habit of carrying a mobile phone with location capability so that you can call in case you are lost or confused and people can track your location via the phone. Also, program important phone numbers into your phone, so you don't have to try to recall them.
- Make sure regular appointments are on the same day at the same time as much as possible.
- Use a calendar or whiteboard in the home to track daily schedules. Build the habit of checking off completed items so that you can be sure they were completed.
- Remove excess furniture, clutter and throw rugs.
- Install sturdy handrails on stairways and in bathrooms.
- Ensure that shoes and slippers are comfortable and provide good traction.
- Reduce the number of mirrors. People with Alzheimer's may find images in mirrors confusing or frightening.
- Keep photographs and other meaningful objects around the house.
Regular exercise is an important part of everybody's wellness plan — and those with Alzheimer's are no exception. Activities such as a daily walk can help improve mood and maintain the health of joints, muscles and the heart.
Exercise can also promote restful sleep and prevent constipation. Make sure that the person with Alzheimer's carries identification or wears a medical alert bracelet if she or he walks unaccompanied.
People with Alzheimer's who develop trouble walking may still be able to use a stationary bike or participate in chair exercises. You may be able to find exercise programs geared to older adults on TV or on DVDs.
People with Alzheimer's may forget to eat, lose interest in preparing meals or not eat a healthy combination of foods. They may also forget to drink enough, leading to dehydration and constipation.
- High-calorie, healthy shakes and smoothies. You can supplement milkshakes with protein powders (available at grocery stores, drugstores and discount retailers) or use your blender to make smoothies featuring your favorite ingredients.
- Water, juice and other healthy beverages. Try to ensure that a person with Alzheimer's drinks at least several full glasses of liquids every day. Avoid beverages with caffeine, which can increase restlessness, interfere with sleep and trigger a frequent need to urinate.
Certain nutritional supplements are marketed as "medical foods" specifically to treat Alzheimer's disease. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not approve products marketed as medical foods. Despite marketing claims, there's no definitive data showing that any of these supplements is beneficial or safe.
Various herbal mixtures, vitamins and other supplements are widely promoted as preparations that may support cognitive health or prevent or delay Alzheimer's. Currently, there's no strong evidence that any of these therapies slow the progression of cognitive decline.
Some of the treatments that have been studied recently include:
- Omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids in fish may help prevent cognitive decline. Studies done on fish oil supplements haven't shown any benefit, however.
- Curcumin. This herb comes from turmeric and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that might affect chemical processes in the brain. So far, clinical trials have found no benefit for treating Alzheimer's disease.
- Ginkgo. Ginkgo is a plant extract containing several substances. A large study funded by the NIH found no effect in preventing or delaying Alzheimer's disease.
- Vitamin E. Although vitamin E isn't effective for preventing Alzheimer's, taking 2,000 international units daily may help delay the progression in people who already have the disease. However, study results have been mixed, with only some showing this benefit. Further research into the safety of 2,000 international units daily of Vitamin E in a dementia population will be needed before it can be routinely recommended.
Supplements promoted for cognitive health can interact with medications you're taking for Alzheimer's disease or other health conditions. Work closely with your health care team to create a treatment plan that's right for you. Make sure you understand the risks and benefits of everything it includes.