1. Baccalaureate Studies United World College of the Atlantic, South Wales
  2. MD University of Toronto
  3. Internship Toronto General Hospital
  4. Doctor of Philosophy University of Toronto
  5. PhD Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto
  6. Resident - Orthopedic Surgery University of Toronto
  7. Fellow - Upper Extremity Surgery St. Michaels Hospital
  8. Fellow - Arthroscopic Surgery Toronto Western Hospital
  9. Post-Doc - Under direction of A.R. Poole, PhD, DSc at Joint Diseases Laboratory, Shriner's Hospita,l, McGill Univ., Montreal, Canada McGill University
  10. Postdoctoral Research Fellowship - Orthopedic Biomechanics under the supervision of K-N An, PhD, BF Morrey, and EYS Chao PhD, Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Rochester MN Mayo Clinic in Rochester
  11. Fellow - Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Mayo Clinic in Rochester


  1. Diplomate, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
  2. American Board of Internal Medicine - Sports Medicine

Academic rank

  1. Professor of Orthopedics

Professional Highlights

  • Chair, International Cartilage Repair Society, 2000-present


  • Elbow, shoulder and cartilage
  • Clinical and basic laboratory research in sports medicine on elbow biomechanics, kinematics, ligament injuries and reconstruction, fractures and fracture fixation, elbow contractures, and elbow arthroscopy
  • Developed and published key provocative clinical signs for establishing the diagnosis of such conditions as ulnar collateral ligament injuries in throwing athletes, biceps tendon tears, and instability
  • Validation of further provocative clinical signs for establishing the diagnosis of tennis elbow, golfer's elbow, osteochondritis dissecans, chondral injuries, posterior impingement, chronic valgus extension overload, and early arthritis
  • Clinical research in documentation of the safety of arthroscopic contracture release of the elbow, elbow contracture release in pediatric patients, arthroscopic treatment of osteochondritis dissecans, and arthroscopic osteocapsular arthroplasty for hypertrophic osteoarthritis from chronic overuse such as with weightlifting and pitching
  • Shoulder research studies including arthroscopic glendoiplasty and osteocapsular arthroplasty for osteoarthritis in athletic and patients, osteolysis of the distal clavicle, and labral/SLAP tears
  • Dynamic labral shear test to diagnose SLAP tears and internal impingement
  • Biomechanics of the elbow and shoulder and cartilage repair techniques


See a listing of publications on PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine.


See a description of research activities.